Juniper Hardening Procedure

DOWNLOAD – Juniper device hardening

Introduction

Rationale

An out-of-box firewall implementation is not fully secure and needs to be hardened. This document details the various aspects of Juniper firewall security and standards implemented for securing Juniper firewalls.

Purpose

This document is to define a baseline security standard for the Juniper Firewall implementations by firewall administrators.

Scope

These security standards cover the Juniper Firewall Screen OS implementation.

However, for some setups, this minimum requirement and some features of these standards may not be practical for implementation. For exceptions, the system administrators must document the reasons for not complying fully with these standards and request an exemption from the Security department.

Audience

Firewall administrators bear the primary responsibility of implementing these standards. During their reviews and inspections, auditors must use this document to verify standards compliance.

Business managers can read the rationale behind each of the points in the standards to gain an understanding of the importance of applying it to their environments.

Implementation

The Juniper Firewall administrators must use these standards to build the installation and operational procedures.

Juniper Firewall Security Overview

This section gives a very brief overview of various aspects of Juniper Firewall security. The hardening details for each aspect are present in the subsequent sections of the document.

The Juniper Firewall operating security environment consists of various aspects:

  • Device & ScreenOS initial setup

  • Device Configuration

  • Device Management

  • User management

  • Services

  • System access

  • System logging and monitoring

  • Policy logging and monitoring

Device and ScreenOS Setup

The security of a Juniper firewall Screen OS starts with a secure setup. The factors that influence this include using the correct Screen OS version.

Properly Identify Device for Physical Tampering

The outside packaging cannot show damage, or evidence that unauthorized persons have opened it. If the cardboard shows damage that would allow the device to be unpacked or exchanged, this may be evidence of tampering.

Each packed box arrives with custom tape to indicate that Juniper or an authorized manufacturer packaged the device. The tape is unique; with the word, “Juniper” printed repeatedly throughout the tape. If the tape is not present, this may be evidence of tampering.

The internal packaging cannot show damage or evidence of tampering. The plastic bag should not have a large hole and the label that seals the plastic bag should not be detached or missing. Any damage to the bag or the seal may be evidence of tampering.

Verify correct version of hardware and software

To verify that the product received is the correct version of hardware and software, run the following command from the CLI:

get system

The output of this command includes two key items, hardware version and software version. The hardware and software versions must match the common criteria security target to be in full compliance with the common criteria evaluated configuration.

The firewalls come with pre-installed Screen OS software. However, the Screen OS software versions installed on the devices might vary depending on the manufacturing time of the security appliances.

Upgrading a Juniper Firewall

The correct Screen OS software image needs to be loaded on to the security appliance.

Before the Screen OS software image can be loaded, configure the manage interface though which the images can be downloaded from the FTP server to the security appliances. The following commands will configure the zone and IP address for the manage interface.

set interface interface-name zone trust

set interface interface-name ip ip-address

Note: Interface-name should the name of the actual interface connected to the PC serving as FTP firewall; through this interface, the security appliances can communicate with the FTP firewall. For the 5-series devices, interface trust – bound to the security zone trust by default – can be used. For devices Juniper NetScreen-204 and 208, you can use interface ethernet1. For Juniper NetScreen-500, interface ethernet1/1in the security zone trust can be in place of interface-name. On high-level security, appliances including Juniper NetScreen-ISG2000 and ISG1000 interface can use ethernet1/1. Juniper NetScreen-5200 and NetScreen 5400 can use Interface ethernet2/1.

The ip-address should be a valid IP address, which can be in the same or different subnet with the TFTP firewall.

Once configured, use the following commands to download the Screen OS image from the FTP firewall to the security appliance:

save software from tftp tftp-firewall-ip Screen OS-image to flash

where, tftp-firewall-ip is IP address for PC serving as the TFTP firewall where the Screen OS software images reside and, Screen OS-image is relative path to the Screen OS software image file and the name of the file itself.

For example, if the Screen OS image for the device Juniper NetScreen-5GT is “ns5gt.5.4.0r4.0” and resides on FTP firewall (with IP address 10.155.95.253), under the directory /tftpboot/screen OS-image/5.4/, the command should be as the following:

save software from tftp 10.155.95.253 /tftpboot/screen OS-image/5.4/ns5gt.5.4.0r4.0 to flash

The downloading process will take a few minutes. After the downloading process is completed, the security appliance will return to the CLI prompt and requires a reboot. Issue the command reset and provide answers for the questions below to completely load the image to the security appliance and restore the default manufacture configurations.

reset

Configuration modified, save? [y]/n n

System reset, are you sure? y/[n] y

The security appliance will return to the login prompt. At this time, the security appliance has been completely loaded with the proper Screen OS software version.

Screen OS Upgrades

Update the firewalls’ Screen OS with the vendor recommended updates as part of quarterly.

Device Configuration

Restore default settings

Restore the firewall to the default manufacturing operation mode and configurations before putting the appliance in a different operation modes including Transparent Authenticated mode (a.k.a. Transparent VPN mode) or NAT/Route Authenticated mode (a.k.a. NAT/Route VPN mode) or before performing any configurations for any specific testing.

Use the commands unset all and reset along with the following answers to restored the default operation mode and configurations for the appliance.

unset all

Erase all system config, are you sure y/ [n]? Y

reset

Configuration modified, save? [y]/n n

System reset, are you sure? y/[n] y

Set accurate date and time

Enable the following command to ensure that the date and time stamps used on audit messages are accurate:

set clock mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm

Setting the Operation Mode

To determine which operation mode the juniper firewall is, use the following command.

get system

System in NAT/Route mode” indicates it is operating in NAT/Route mode

System in transparent mode” indicates it is operating in transparent mode.

All security appliances are, by default, configured in NAT/Route mode without VPN.

To ensure that a security appliance is in a mode compliant with the Common Criteria EAL4 evaluated configuration, follow one of the following three sets of steps depending on the desired configuration:

Unauthenticated NAT/Route Mode

Authenticated NAT/Route Mode

Route-Based VPN

Policy-Based VPN

Authenticated Transparent Mode

Authenticated NAT/Route Mode

Configure the firewall in authenticated NAT/Route Mode using either a Route-based VPN or Policy-based VPN. You can configure both Route-based VPN and Policy-based VPN in authenticated NAT/Route mode.

Only Manual Key is supported in the Evaluated Configuration, i.e. AutoKey cannot be used. Take care in selecting Manual Key values such that they follow the same rules as administrative passwords. Distribute the manual keys using a secure method to ensure that they are not publicly accessible.

Route-Based VPN

Configure the respective security appliance with a Route-based VPN in authenticated NAT/Route mode.

Policy-Based VPN

Configure the respective security appliance with a Policy-based VPN in authenticated NAT/Route mode.

Firewall Naming Convention

Branch Firewalls: (Naming convention not set)

Data Center Firewalls: (Naming convention not set)

Configuring Screen Options

Security appliances must prevent all types of Denial of Service (DoS) and attack signatures on every security zone to prevent these types of attacks from occurring on the network.

To view the default screening options for a particular security zone, issue the following command.

get zone zone-name screen

By default, the screening options enabled for the Untrust/V1-Untrust security zone (and the interfaces in Untrust/V1-Untrust zone) in Screen OS 5.0:

Tear-drop Attack Protection on

SYN Flood Protection (200) on

Alarm Threshold: alarm-threshold

Queue Size: Q-size

Timeout Value: 20

Source Threshold: src-threshold

Destination Threshold: dst-threshold

Drop unknown MAC (transparent mode only): off

Ping-of-Death Protection on

Source Route IP Option Filter on

Land Attack Protection on

Alarm-threshold, Q-size, src-threshold, and dst-threshold are platform dependent as specified in the table below.

For the Trust/V1-Trust and DMZ/V1-DMZ zones (and the interfaces in Trust and DMZ zone), no screen options are enabled by default.

Screen function only generate alarm without dropping packet: OFF

To disable all the default screening option for zone Untrust/V1-Untrust, the following commands are used:

unset zone untrust screen tear-drop

unset zone untrust screen syn-flood

unset zone untrust screen ping-death

unset zone untrust screen ip-filter-src

unset zone untrust screen land

The following displays when the security zone has no screening options enabled:

Screen function only generate alarm without dropping packet: OFF”

The following CLI command enables all screens on a per-zone basis (and is applied to all interfaces within that zone):

set zone zone-name screen block-frag

set zone zone-name screen component-block

set zone zone-name screen fin-no-ack

set zone zone-name screen icmp-flood

set zone zone-name screen icmp-fragment

set zone zone-name screen icmp-large

set zone zone-name screen ip-bad-option

set zone zone-name screen ip-filter-src

set zone zone-name screen ip-loose-src-route

set zone zone-name screen ip-record-route

set zone zone-name screen ip-security-opt

set zone zone-name screen ip-spoofing

set zone zone-name screen ip-stream-opt

set zone zone-name screen ip-strict-src-route

set zone zone-name screen ip-sweep

set zone zone-name screen ip-timestamp-opt

set zone zone-name screen land

set zone zone-name screen limit-session

set zone zone-name screen mal-url code-red

set zone zone-name screen ping-death

set zone zone-name screen port-scan

set zone zone-name screen syn-ack-ack-proxy

set zone zone-name screen syn-fin

set zone zone-name screen syn-flood

set zone zone-name screen syn-frag

set zone zone-name screen tcp-no-flag

set zone zone-name screen tear-drop

set zone zone-name screen udp-flood

set zone zone-name screen unknown-protocol

set zone zone-name screen winnuke

The above commands must run for both the internal and external zones (i.e. Trust and Untrust) to protect the internal and external networks. When security appliance runs in NAT/Route mode, run the above commands for security zones Trust and Untrust.

When the security appliance runs in “Transparent” mode, (including Transparent Authenticated mode), run the above commands for security zones V1-Trust and V1-Untrust.

You must run the same commands (as above) for each additional security zone.

When the security appliance operates in NAT/Route mode, (including NAT/Route Unauthenticated and Nat/Route Authenticated mode) enable dropping packets that have no source IP address, or that have a non-routable source IP address by using the following command.

set zone zone-name screen ip-spoofing drop-no-rpf-route

zone-name” is the name of the security zone such as Trust or Untrust.

For instance, when the security in NAT/Route mode, to turn on dropping packets capability for the security zone trust and untrust, issue the following commands.

set zone trust screen ip-spoofing drop-no-rpf-route

set zone untrust screen ip-spoofing drop-no-rpf-route

Ensure to execute the same command (as above) for any Layer-3 security zones that are used. When changing the HTTP blocking option the changes will only apply to the sessions newly created after this blocking option is set.

Configuring IP Spoofing Protection

Configure IP spoofing protection by the screen option “ip-spoofing” as indicated above in the section, “Configuring Screen Options”. This includes Intrazone configurations where VPN traffic is on the same zone as the decrypted traffic. However depending on the configuration implemented (especially Interzone) the following additional steps are required to be adequately protected against IP spoofing attacks.

The following guidance for Authenticated NAT/Route mode and Authenticated Transparent mode should supplement the guidance provided in the previous section “Setting a Policy to Permit Traffic”.

“IP-Spoofing” Screen is bypassed – a set of addresses and policies need to be defined to allow only traffic permitted, excluding spoofed IP addresses.

When operating in Authenticated NAT/Route mode or Authenticated Transparent mode, the “IP-spoofing” screen option is “bypassed”. Therefore, define a set of addresses and policies to allow traffic, excluding spoofed IP addresses.

Device Management

This sections provides details on securing the firewall device’s management aspects

Securing Administrator Traffic On Device

Four steps are required to secure the device administrator traffic:

  1. Define permitted IP address for client administrator Manager-IP address

  2. Define interface-specific options

    1. Define Manage IP address for interfaces

    2. Turn off unnecessary management services

  3. Change port numbers for administrator services

Disable Internal Commands

The firewall administrator must disable internal commands. The usage of internal commands applies only for troubleshooting and debugging purposes.

To disable internal commands, you must run the following command:

set common-criteria no-internal-commands

To use internal commands (i.e. ‘debug flow basic’ and ‘get dbuf stream’, ‘debug ids sat’) for troubleshooting and debugging purposes, use the following command:

unset common-criteria no-internal-commands

Note: Use the internal commands ‘debug ids sat’ is for ISG-1000, ISG-2000, NS-5200 and NS-5400

Disable Telnet for Device Management

The use of telnet is discouraged on the Juniper firewalls. Use SSH, 2.0 for managing the Juniper firewall:

To do this:

Disable telnet on the management interface

Enable ssh

Control Unauthorized Hardware Resets

To disable recovery via login, use the following command:

unset admin device-reset

To disable recovery via pinhole, use the following command:

unset admin hw-reset

When disabled, a firewall administrator needs to enable the respective reset in order to perform any activity, which requires rebooting the firewall.

Restricting Remote Access

Management access must be limited to the locally connected console port as opposed to the factory default settings.

To limit management access to the console port, the interface that is by default in the V1-Trust or Trust security zone needs to have management access turned off.

All other interfaces have management access turned off by default.

To disable management to the interface, issue the following CLI command:

unset interface interface-name manage

User Management

Security appliance administrators must choose login-names and passwords that not only have the length of at least eight characters and employ as many types of characters as possible. Mixing lower case and upper case is required to ensure proper protection. In addition, easily guessable usernames and passwords are not secure.

Security appliances ship with a default username and password of “netscreen”. Change the default as soon as possible to prevent unauthorized access.

The recommended time between password changes is no longer than 30 days to mitigate the effects of a compromised administrator identity.

Setting/Changing Password Length Restrictions

To ensure that passwords of eight characters or more are always used, you must first set the following command:

set admin password restrict length password-length

where, password-length is a decimal value equal to or greater than 8 and less than or equal to 31. It should also follow password policy.

Setting/Changing Administrator Name and Password

The following CLI commands, in order, are required to set a new administrator name and password:

set admin name name-string

set admin password password-string

where, name-string and password-string should be replaced with actual login name and password of administrator.

Policy Management

Remove Permissive Default Policy

The firewall might have a default policy that allows traffic to traverse the device from the interface in the Trust zone to the interface in the Untrust zone. Delete this default policy to avoid inadvertently allowing information to traverse the device. Use the CLI command:

unset policy id 1

Log Denied Traffic

By default, security appliance will drop any traffic that does not match any “permit” policy. Therefore, add a policy to the end of the policy list to log denied traffic, which matches no policy:

set policy id pol-id from scr-zone to dst-zone any any any deny log

count

where, pol-id is policy ID, scr-zone and dst-zone are, respectively, source zone from which the traffic comes and destination zone to which the traffic arrives.

For every security zone that has a network interface assigned to it, add the above policies to the end of the policy tables to ensure that dropped traffic logging.

set policy id pol-id from trust to untrust any any any deny log count

set policy id pol-id from untrust to trust any any any deny log count

set policy id pol-id from trust to dmz any any any deny log count

set policy id pol-id from dmz to trust any any any deny log count

Setting a Policy To Permit Traffic

Two important steps to take when creating a security policy:

  • Enable counting and logging to maintain audit log information for traffic passing through the device.

  • Must be specific to ensure traffic permitted is intentional and not part of a generic policy.

Use specific source IP address (src-addr), destination IP address (dst-addr), source zone (src-zone), destination zone (dst-zone), protocol, and service (servicename) if feasible. One example where it may not make sense to be specific is for traffic destined for an external network for general web access.

After creating and configuring the source and destination addresses, configure the policy with counting and logging using the following command:

set policy id id-num from src-zone to dst-zone src-addr dst-addr servicename

action log count

where, “id-num”: is the decimal number presenting the policy ID number & “action” can be permit to allow specific service to pass from source address across the security appliance to the destination address; or deny to block service from passing though the security appliance

Ordering Policies

The order of policies is important, as policies match in order beginning with the first one in the policy list and moving through the list. The first matching policy applies to network traffic to determine the action taken. By default, a newly created policy appears at the bottom of a policy list.

There is an option that allows you to position a policy at the top of the list instead. In the CLI, add the key word top to the set policy command:

For example,

set policy id 6 top from trust to untrust trust-HostA untr-NetworkB http

permit log

The newly created policy can also be positioned at any location in the policy list by using the keyword option before to the set policy CLI command.

For example:

set policy id 4 before 98 from untrust to trust untr-NetworkB trust-HostA ftp permit log

If global policies are used then replace the above policy, which executes prior to any Global policy. A Global deny policy can be used which must be added at the end of the Global policy list

set policy global id pol-id any any any deny log count

System Logging and Monitoring

Configuring Syslog

You should configure a Syslog firewall as a backup for security audit information and for long-term audit log storage. This will help prevent a loss in security audit information.

The specific commands required to set up a Syslog firewall are:

set syslog config ip-address facilities local0 local0

set syslog config ip-address port 514

set syslog config ip-address log traffic

set syslog enable

set log module system level level-name destination syslog

where ip-address is the actual IP address of the Syslog firewall and level-name is the severity level of the log

Note: You must enter the set log command once for each message level.

The options for level-name are listed below:

emergency

alert

critical

error

warning

notification

information

debugging

Events to be Logged

The system logs contain historic firewall events and usage information, used for debugging system malfunctions and forensic investigations. Hence, log all critical information. Configure syslog to log the following on each firewall:

  • Each login and logoff

  • Firewall start-up and shutdown

  • Complete session

  • User and group account administration

  • Hardware failures

Log Retention and Archival

Many a times it is required to get a complete audit trail of a process for security investigation or troubleshooting purpose. Hence, locally retain the firewall logs for a defined number of days. There should be enough storage space allotted to handle this. In addition, there must be very strict access control implemented on the stored logs.

The log files must be archived offline. Appropriately protect the archived logs so that unauthorized users do not access them.

Protection of Log Files

If a malicious user manages to modify the log files and remove traces of attack, no investigation can be conclusive. In addition, the log extended periods for audit trail. Hence, protect log files against tampering and stored securely.

Session Activity Logs for Privileged Users

Privileged users have total control over the firewall. Log every activity performed on the firewall by these users.

Periodic Monitoring

For maintaining the security levels on the Juniper firewalls, monitor the firewalls on a regular basis. Perform these monitoring tasks on periodic basis.

Configuring Audit Loss Mitigation

There are cases where more auditable events can occur than the security appliance is able to write to a syslog firewall. The security appliance must stop further auditable events from occurring until the audit trail is able to handle more traffic. An authorized administrator must enable the following command:

set log audit-loss-mitigation

Logging Permitted Packets

To log permitted packets passing through the device enable logging option on all authenticated and/or unauthenticated traffic policies.

In this document, all permitted policies include the keyword log, to create traffic log entries for permitted traffic.

Upon completion of the application session permitted traffic logs are created.

You can use the following command to view the overall traffic logs, or specific policy’s traffic log:

get log traffic

get log traffic policy id

Logging Dropped Packets

To log dropped packets set to terminate on any of the device interfaces, you must enable the following command:

set firewall log-self

To log authenticated dropped packets; you must add the log keyword to the first policy associated with a VPN tunnel. Packets that do not match any of the policies associated with the tunnel are “dropped”. The log entries for these dropped packets linked with the highest priority policy (first in the ‘get policy all’ list) associated with the tunnel and the traffic flow direction.

Firewall Management Idle Timeout

Command Line Interface

Protect Management from the console port by setting an idle timeout. By default, console and Telnet sessions time out after 10 minutes of inactivity. Recommend never to set the timeout value to zero.

To verify execute the command:

get console

Web User Interface (WebUI)

The WebUI timeout, like the console timeout, defaults to 10 minutes. When changing the WebUI timeout, specify a number of minutes (between 1 and 999) of idle time before closing the browser. Enable the option “Enable Web Management Idle Timeout” check box. Do not disable it.

Security Manager

Edit Device > Device Admin > Web Management

Permitted IP Addresses

Configure Juniper Networks devices to accept management requests only from trusted sources. Define a list of permitted IP addresses. Permitted IP addresses include a mask parameter specified as dotted-decimal value. Permitted IP addresses can be a hosts / subnets. NOTE: You are limited to six entries.

CLI

set admin manager-ip address [mask]

WebUI

Configuration >Admin > Permitted IPs

Security Manager

Edit Device > Device Admin > Permitted IPs > Add

Daily Monitoring Tasks

  • Three or more consecutive failed login attempts

  • Syslog events with levels – critical, alert or emergency

  • Unauthorized addition and deletion to user accounts and groups

  • Changes / Unauthorized changes made

  • Unauthorized access attempts

Weekly Monitoring Tasks

  • Correct operation of syslog daemon

  • All resource (CPU, memory) usage exceeding pre-defined thresholds (based on capacity planning figures)

Monthly Monitoring Tasks

  • Firewall patch levels

  • Firewall reboots

  • Disk space usage

  • Account group membership changes

  • Verification of backups

Bi Yearly Monitoring Tasks

  • Perform Physical audit

The Juniper Firewall administrators must perform these monitoring tasks. Notify any discrepancy observed from normal operation to the appropriate department.

Firewall Protection

Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP)

In order to provide protection against system failures, there has to be a tested and approved DRP. This should include the backup policy and contingency arrangements.

The DRP for each Juniper Firewall must be ready at the time the firewall is in production environment.

There must be a planned and bi-yearly Disaster Recovery Drill to ensure that the DRP is maintained and updated.

Physical Security of Juniper Firewall installation

Physical security deals with all the security aspects of the installation premises of the actual firewalls

  • Secure the physical location of the Juniper firewalls to guarantee operational continuity, protection against natural and fabricated disasters, and prevent loss of Information Assets.

  • The Juniper firewalls must have uninterrupted and clean power supply, and operating conditions as recommended by the hardware vendors.

Fault Tolerance

To ensure that failure of one firewall does not halt operations, each Juniper Firewall must use NSRP / HA for redundancy.

Backup

Ensure that in case of data failure, manipulation or data loss; restore the system operations to previous working state at the earliest.

  • Backup the data on each firewall using the standard operations procedures, to ensure that in case of failure, data recovery must conform to the SLA with the Business.

  • Proper media labeling and protection should be implemented to ensure that media is not accidentally or deliberately overwritten.

  • Verify the backup regularly by doing random restoration checks.

  • The storage and retention of the computer media must be as per the manufacturer’s recommendations.

  • On expiry, the media should be disposed securely, ensuring no data extraction is possible

Separation of test and Production environment

The test and development environment is usually set up with loose security controls. In order to avoid this, separate the Juniper Production firewalls from the test and development setup.

Irrespective of the settings and controls applied on test and development firewalls, the production firewalls must be hardened as per the Juniper Firewall security standards.

Do not create test user accounts on the Production firewalls.

There should be secure connection from test to Production firewalls.

Do not use data passing from production to the test environment without desensitizing it.

Change Management

The Juniper firewalls must also adhere to this CM policy. The system administrators must ensure that every change goes through the appropriate CM process.

Service Level Agreements for Screen OS and hardware support

For continuity of operation, protect the firewalls from extended downtimes due to Screen OS malfunctioning or hardware failure.

Each Juniper Firewall must have an SLA for Screen OS support (patches, troubleshooting etc) from an authorized Juniper Firewall vendor. Ensure that the firewalls are also be supported by an SLA with respective product vendors.

Protection of firewalls not kept in the Data Center

Not all Juniper firewalls are located at the Data Center. Many of them are deployed in remote sites are housed in other locations with lesser protection – like the Lab \ Outstations. Hence, the respective teams must ensure that such firewalls have adequate access control and physical protection implemented.

Documentation

The system administration and operations team must have complete documentation of the Juniper Firewall setup. This must include (but not limited to):

  • Installation procedure

  • Security settings

  • Operating procedures

  • Firewall configurations for each firewall

  • Details of users for each firewall, with access rights

  • Disaster Recovery Procedures for each firewall

  • Regularly update the documentation.

INTRODUCTION
Rationale
An out-of-box firewall implementation is not fully secure and needs to be hardened. This
document details the various aspects of Juniper firewall security and standards implemented
for securing Juniper firewalls.
Purpose
This document is to define a baseline security standard for the Juniper Firewall
implementations by firewall administrators.
Scope
These security standards cover the Juniper Firewall Screen OS implementation.
However, for some setups, this minimum requirement and some features of these standards
may not be practical for implementation. For exceptions, the system administrators must
document the reasons for not complying fully with these standards and request an
exemption from the Security department.
Audience
Firewall administrators bear the primary responsibility of implementing these standards.
During their reviews and inspections, auditors must use this document to verify standards
compliance.
Business managers can read the rationale behind each of the points in the standards to gain
an understanding of the importance of applying it to their environments.
Implementation
The Juniper Firewall administrators must use these standards to build the installation and
operational procedures.
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
Page 1 of 21Juniper Firewall Security Overview
This section gives a very brief overview of various aspects of Juniper Firewall security. The
hardening details for each aspect are present in the subsequent sections of the document.
The Juniper Firewall operating security environment consists of various aspects:
• Device & ScreenOS initial setup
• Device Configuration
• Device Management
• User management
• Services
• System access
• System logging and monitoring
• Policy logging and monitoring
DEVICE
AND
SCREENOS SETUP
The security of a Juniper firewall Screen OS starts with a secure setup. The factors that
influence this include using the correct Screen OS version.
Properly Identify Device for Physical Tampering
The outside packaging cannot show damage, or evidence that unauthorized persons have
opened it. If the cardboard shows damage that would allow the device to be unpacked or
exchanged, this may be evidence of tampering.
Each packed box arrives with custom tape to indicate that Juniper or an authorized
manufacturer packaged the device. The tape is unique; with the word, “Juniper” printed
repeatedly throughout the tape. If the tape is not present, this may be evidence of
tampering.
The internal packaging cannot show damage or evidence of tampering. The plastic bag
should not have a large hole and the label that seals the plastic bag should not be detached
or missing. Any damage to the bag or the seal may be evidence of tampering.
Verify correct version of hardware and software
To verify that the product received is the correct version of hardware and software, run the
following command from the CLI:
get system
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
Page 2 of 21The output of this command includes two key items, hardware version and software version.
The hardware and software versions must match the common criteria security target to be
in full compliance with the common criteria evaluated configuration.
The firewalls come with pre-installed Screen OS software. However, the Screen OS software
versions installed on the devices might vary depending on the manufacturing time of the
security appliances.
Upgrading a Juniper Firewall
The correct Screen OS software image needs to be loaded on to the security appliance.
Before the Screen OS software image can be loaded, configure the manage interface though
which the images can be downloaded from the FTP server to the security appliances. The
following commands will configure the zone and IP address for the manage interface.
set interface interface-name zone trust
set interface interface-name ip ip-address
Note: Interface-name should the name of the actual interface connected to the PC serving
as FTP firewall; through this interface, the security appliances can communicate with the
FTP firewall. For the 5-series devices, interface trust – bound to the security zone trust by
default – can be used. For devices Juniper NetScreen-204 and 208, you can use interface
ethernet1. For Juniper NetScreen-500, interface ethernet1/1 in the security zone trust can
be in place of interface-name. On high-level security, appliances including Juniper
NetScreen-ISG2000 and ISG1000 interface can use ethernet1/1. Juniper NetScreen-5200 and
NetScreen 5400 can use Interface ethernet2/1.
The ip-address should be a valid IP address, which can be in the same or different subnet
with the TFTP firewall.
Once configured, use the following commands to download the Screen OS image from the
FTP firewall to the security appliance:
save software from tftp tftp-firewall-ip Screen OS-image to flash
where, tftp-firewall-ip is IP address for PC serving as the TFTP firewall where the Screen OS
software images reside and, Screen OS-image is relative path to the Screen OS software
image file and the name of the file itself.
For
example,
if
the
Screen
OS
image
for
the
device
Juniper
NetScreen-5GT
is
“ns5gt.5.4.0r4.0” and resides on FTP firewall (with IP address 10.155.95.253), under the
directory /tftpboot/screen OS-image/5.4/, the command should be as the following:
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
Page 3 of 21save
software
from
tftp
10.155.95.253
/tftpboot/screen
OS-image/5.4/ns5gt.5.4.0r4.0 to flash
The downloading process will take a few minutes. After the downloading process is
completed, the security appliance will return to the CLI prompt and requires a reboot. Issue
the command reset and provide answers for the questions below to completely load the
image to the security appliance and restore the default manufacture configurations.
reset
Configuration modified, save? [y]/n n
System reset, are you sure? y/[n] y
The security appliance will return to the login prompt. At this time, the security appliance
has been completely loaded with the proper Screen OS software version.
Screen OS Upgrades
Update the firewalls’ Screen OS with the vendor recommended updates as part of quarterly.
DEVICE CONFIGURATION
Restore default settings
Restore the firewall to the default manufacturing operation mode and configurations before
putting the appliance in a different operation modes including Transparent Authenticated
mode (a.k.a. Transparent VPN mode) or NAT/Route Authenticated mode (a.k.a. NAT/Route
VPN mode) or before performing any configurations for any specific testing.
Use the commands unset all and reset along with the following answers to restored the
default operation mode and configurations for the appliance.
unset all
Erase all system config, are you sure y/ [n]? Y
reset
Configuration modified, save? [y]/n n
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
Page 4 of 21System reset, are you sure? y/[n] y
Set accurate date and time
Enable the following command to ensure that the date and time stamps used on audit
messages are accurate:
set clock mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm
Setting the Operation Mode
To determine which operation mode the juniper firewall is, use the following command.
get system
“System in NAT/Route mode” indicates it is operating in NAT/Route mode
“System in transparent mode” indicates it is operating in transparent mode.
All security appliances are, by default, configured in NAT/Route mode without VPN.
To ensure that a security appliance is in a mode compliant with the Common Criteria EAL4
evaluated configuration, follow one of the following three sets of steps depending on the
desired configuration:
Unauthenticated NAT/Route Mode
Authenticated NAT/Route Mode
Route-Based VPN
Policy-Based VPN
Authenticated Transparent Mode
Authenticated NAT/Route Mode
Configure the firewall in authenticated NAT/Route Mode using either a Route-based VPN or
Policy-based VPN. You can configure both Route-based VPN and Policy-based VPN in
authenticated NAT/Route mode.
Only Manual Key is supported in the Evaluated Configuration, i.e. AutoKey cannot be used.
Take care in selecting Manual Key values such that they follow the same rules as
administrative passwords. Distribute the manual keys using a secure method to ensure that
they are not publicly accessible.
Route-Based VPN
Configure the respective security appliance with a Route-based VPN in authenticated
NAT/Route mode.
Policy-Based VPN
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
Page 5 of 21Configure the respective security appliance with a Policy-based VPN in authenticated
NAT/Route mode.
Firewall Naming Convention
Branch Firewalls: (Naming convention not set)
Data Center Firewalls: (Naming convention not set)
Configuring Screen Options
Security appliances must prevent all types of Denial of Service (DoS) and attack signatures
on every security zone to prevent these types of attacks from occurring on the network.
To view the default screening options for a particular security zone, issue the following
command.
get zone zone-name screen
By default, the screening options enabled for the Untrust/V1-Untrust security zone (and
the interfaces in Untrust/V1-Untrust zone) in Screen OS 5.0:
Tear-drop Attack Protection on
SYN Flood Protection (200) on
Alarm Threshold: alarm-threshold
Queue Size: Q-size
Timeout Value: 20
Source Threshold: src-threshold
Destination Threshold: dst-threshold
Drop unknown MAC (transparent mode only): off
Ping-of-Death Protection on
Source Route IP Option Filter on
Land Attack Protection on
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
Page 6 of 21Alarm-threshold, Q-size, src-threshold, and dst-threshold are platform dependent as
specified in the table below.
For the Trust/V1-Trust and DMZ/V1-DMZ zones (and the interfaces in Trust and DMZ
zone), no screen options are enabled by default.
Screen function only generate alarm without dropping packet: OFF
To disable all the default screening option for zone Untrust/V1-Untrust, the following
commands are used:
unset zone untrust screen tear-drop
unset zone untrust screen syn-flood
unset zone untrust screen ping-death
unset zone untrust screen ip-filter-src
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
Page 7 of 21unset zone untrust screen land
The following displays when the security zone has no screening options enabled:
“Screen function only generate alarm without dropping packet: OFF”
The following CLI command enables all screens on a per-zone basis (and is applied to all
interfaces within that zone):
set zone zone-name screen block-frag
set zone zone-name screen component-block
set zone zone-name screen fin-no-ack
set zone zone-name screen icmp-flood
set zone zone-name screen icmp-fragment
set zone zone-name screen icmp-large
set zone zone-name screen ip-bad-option
set zone zone-name screen ip-filter-src
set zone zone-name screen ip-loose-src-route
set zone zone-name screen ip-record-route
set zone zone-name screen ip-security-opt
set zone zone-name screen ip-spoofing
set zone zone-name screen ip-stream-opt
set zone zone-name screen ip-strict-src-route
set zone zone-name screen ip-sweep
set zone zone-name screen ip-timestamp-opt
set zone zone-name screen land
set zone zone-name screen limit-session
set zone zone-name screen mal-url code-red
set zone zone-name screen ping-death
set zone zone-name screen port-scan
set zone zone-name screen syn-ack-ack-proxy
set zone zone-name screen syn-fin
set zone zone-name screen syn-flood
set zone zone-name screen syn-frag
set zone zone-name screen tcp-no-flag
set zone zone-name screen tear-drop
set zone zone-name screen udp-flood
set zone zone-name screen unknown-protocol
set zone zone-name screen winnuke
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
Page 8 of 21The above commands must run for both the internal and external zones (i.e. Trust and
Untrust) to protect the internal and external networks. When security appliance runs in
NAT/Route mode, run the above commands for security zones Trust and Untrust.
When the security appliance runs in “Transparent” mode, (including Transparent
Authenticated mode), run the above commands for security zones V1-Trust and
V1-Untrust.
You must run the same commands (as above) for each additional security zone.
When the security appliance operates in NAT/Route mode, (including NAT/Route
Unauthenticated and Nat/Route Authenticated mode) enable dropping packets that have no
source IP address, or that have a non-routable source IP address by using the following
command.
set zone zone-name screen ip-spoofing drop-no-rpf-route
“zone-name” is the name of the security zone such as Trust or Untrust.
For instance, when the security in NAT/Route mode, to turn on dropping packets capability
for the security zone trust and untrust, issue the following commands.
set zone trust screen ip-spoofing drop-no-rpf-route
set zone untrust screen ip-spoofing drop-no-rpf-route
Ensure to execute the same command (as above) for any Layer-3 security zones that are
used. When changing the HTTP blocking option the changes will only apply to the sessions
newly created after this blocking option is set.
Configuring IP Spoofing Protection
Configure IP spoofing protection by the screen option “ip-spoofing” as indicated above in the
section, “Configuring Screen Options”. This includes Intrazone configurations where VPN
traffic is on the same zone as the decrypted traffic. However depending on the configuration
implemented (especially Interzone) the following additional steps are required to be
adequately protected against IP spoofing attacks.
The following guidance for Authenticated NAT/Route mode and Authenticated Transparent
mode should supplement the guidance provided in the previous section “Setting a Policy to
Permit Traffic”.
“IP-Spoofing” Screen is bypassed – a set of addresses and policies need to be defined to
allow only traffic permitted, excluding spoofed IP addresses.
When operating in Authenticated NAT/Route mode or Authenticated Transparent mode, the
“IP-spoofing” screen option is “bypassed”. Therefore, define a set of addresses and policies
to allow traffic, excluding spoofed IP addresses.
DEVICE MANAGEMENT
This sections provides details on securing the firewall device’s management aspects
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
Page 9 of 21Securing Administrator Traffic On Device
Four steps are required to secure the device administrator traffic:
a) Define permitted IP address for client administrator Manager-IP address
b) Define interface-specific options
i)
Define Manage IP address for interfaces
ii) Turn off unnecessary management services
c) Change port numbers for administrator services
Disable Internal Commands
The firewall administrator must disable internal commands. The usage of internal commands
applies only for troubleshooting and debugging purposes.
To disable internal commands, you must run the following command:
set common-criteria no-internal-commands
To use internal commands (i.e. ‘debug flow basic’ and ‘get dbuf stream’, ‘debug ids sat’)
for troubleshooting and debugging purposes, use the following command:
unset common-criteria no-internal-commands
Note: Use the internal commands ‘debug ids sat’ is for ISG-1000, ISG-2000, NS-5200 and
NS-5400
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 10 ofDisable Telnet for Device Management
The use of telnet is discouraged on the Juniper firewalls. Use SSH, 2.0 for managing the
Juniper firewall:
To do this:
Disable telnet on the management interface
Enable ssh
Control Unauthorized Hardware Resets
To disable recovery via login, use the following command:
unset admin device-reset
To disable recovery via pinhole, use the following command:
unset admin hw-reset
When disabled, a firewall administrator needs to enable the respective reset in order to
perform any activity, which requires rebooting the firewall.
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 11 ofRestricting Remote Access
Management access must be limited to the locally connected console port as opposed to the
factory default settings.
To limit management access to the console port, the interface that is by default in the
V1-Trust or Trust security zone needs to have management access turned off.
All other interfaces have management access turned off by default.
To disable management to the interface, issue the following CLI command:
unset interface interface-name manage
USER MANAGEMENT
Security appliance administrators must choose login-names and passwords that not only
have the length of at least eight characters and employ as many types of characters as
possible. Mixing lower case and upper case is required to ensure proper protection. In
addition, easily guessable usernames and passwords are not secure.
Security appliances ship with a default username and password of “netscreen”. Change the
default as soon as possible to prevent unauthorized access.
The recommended time between password changes is no longer than 30 days to mitigate
the effects of a compromised administrator identity.
Setting/Changing Password Length Restrictions
To ensure that passwords of eight characters or more are always used, you must first set the
following command:
set admin password restrict length password-length
where, password-length is a decimal value equal to or greater than 8 and less than or equal
to 31. It should also follow password policy.
Setting/Changing Administrator Name and Password
The following CLI commands, in order, are required to set a new administrator name and
password:
set admin name name-string
set admin password password-string
where, name-string and password-string should be replaced with actual login name and
password of administrator.
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 12 ofPOLICY MANAGEMENT
Remove Permissive Default Policy
The firewall might have a default policy that allows traffic to traverse the device from the
interface in the Trust zone to the interface in the Untrust zone. Delete this default policy to
avoid inadvertently allowing information to traverse the device. Use the CLI command:
unset policy id 1
Log Denied Traffic
By default, security appliance will drop any traffic that does not match any “permit” policy.
Therefore, add a policy to the end of the policy list to log denied traffic, which matches no
policy:
set policy id pol-id from scr-zone to dst-zone any any any deny log
count
…where, pol-id is policy ID, scr-zone and dst-zone are, respectively, source zone from which
the traffic comes and destination zone to which the traffic arrives.
For every security zone that has a network interface assigned to it, add the above policies to
the end of the policy tables to ensure that dropped traffic logging.
set policy id pol-id from trust to untrust any any any deny log count
set policy id pol-id from untrust to trust any any any deny log count
set policy id pol-id from trust to dmz any any any deny log count
set policy id pol-id from dmz to trust any any any deny log count

Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 13 ofSetting a Policy To Permit Traffic
Two important steps to take when creating a security policy:

Enable counting and logging to maintain audit log information for traffic passing
through the device.

Must be specific to ensure traffic permitted is intentional and not part of a generic
policy.
Use specific source IP address (src-addr), destination IP address (dst-addr), source zone
(src-zone), destination zone (dst-zone), protocol, and service (servicename) if feasible. One
example where it may not make sense to be specific is for traffic destined for an external
network for general web access.
After creating and configuring the source and destination addresses, configure the policy
with counting and logging using the following command:
set policy id id-num from src-zone to dst-zone src-addr dst-addr servicename
action log count
…where, “id-num”: is the decimal number presenting the policy ID number & “action” can
be permit to allow specific service to pass from source address across the security
appliance to the destination address; or deny to block service from passing though the
security appliance
Ordering Policies
The order of policies is important, as policies match in order beginning with the first one in
the policy list and moving through the list. The first matching policy applies to network
traffic to determine the action taken. By default, a newly created policy appears at the
bottom of a policy list.
There is an option that allows you to position a policy at the top of the list instead. In the CLI,
add the key word top to the set policy command:
For example,
set policy id 6 top from trust to untrust trust-HostA untr-NetworkB http
permit log
The newly created policy can also be positioned at any location in the policy list by using the
keyword option before to the set policy CLI command.
For example:
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 14 ofset policy id 4 before 98 from untrust to trust untr-NetworkB trust-HostA ftp
permit log
If global policies are used then replace the above policy, which executes prior to any Global
policy. A Global deny policy can be used which must be added at the end of the Global
policy list
set policy global id pol-id any any any deny log count
SYSTEM LOGGING
AND
MONITORING
Configuring Syslog
You should configure a Syslog firewall as a backup for security audit information and for
long-term audit log storage. This will help prevent a loss in security audit information.
The specific commands required to set up a Syslog firewall are:
set syslog config ip-address facilities local0 local0
set syslog config ip-address port 514
set syslog config ip-address log traffic
set syslog enable
set log module system level level-name destination syslog
where ip-address is the actual IP address of the Syslog firewall and level-name is the
severity level of the log
Note: You must enter the set log command once for each message level.
The options for level-name are listed below:
emergency
alert
critical
error
warning
notification
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 15 ofinformation
debugging
Events to be Logged
The system logs contain historic firewall events and usage information, used for debugging
system malfunctions and forensic investigations. Hence, log all critical information.
Configure syslog to log the following on each firewall:
• Each login and logoff
• Firewall start-up and shutdown
• Complete session
• User and group account administration
• Hardware failures
Log Retention and Archival
Many a times it is required to get a complete audit trail of a process for security
investigation or troubleshooting purpose. Hence, locally retain the firewall logs for a defined
number of days. There should be enough storage space allotted to handle this. In addition,
there must be very strict access control implemented on the stored logs.
The log files must be archived offline. Appropriately protect the archived logs so that
unauthorized users do not access them.
Protection of Log Files
If a malicious user manages to modify the log files and remove traces of attack, no
investigation can be conclusive. In addition, the log extended periods for audit trail. Hence,
protect log files against tampering and stored securely.
Session Activity Logs for Privileged Users
Privileged users have total control over the firewall. Log every activity performed on the
firewall by these users.
Periodic Monitoring
For maintaining the security levels on the Juniper firewalls, monitor the firewalls on a regular
basis. Perform these monitoring tasks on periodic basis.
CONFIGURING AUDIT LOSS MITIGATION
There are cases where more auditable events can occur than the security appliance is able
to write to a syslog firewall. The security appliance must stop further auditable events from
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 16 ofoccurring until the audit trail is able to handle more traffic. An authorized administrator must
enable the following command:
set log audit-loss-mitigation
Logging Permitted Packets
To log permitted packets passing through the device enable logging option on all
authenticated and/or unauthenticated traffic policies.
In this document, all permitted policies include the keyword log, to create traffic log entries
for permitted traffic.
Upon completion of the application session permitted traffic logs are created.
You can use the following command to view the overall traffic logs, or specific policy’s traffic
log:
get log traffic
get log traffic policy id
Logging Dropped Packets
To log dropped packets set to terminate on any of the device interfaces, you must enable
the following command:
set firewall log-self
To log authenticated dropped packets; you must add the log keyword to the first policy
associated with a VPN tunnel. Packets that do not match any of the policies associated with
the tunnel are “dropped”. The log entries for these dropped packets linked with the highest
priority policy (first in the ‘get policy all’ list) associated with the tunnel and the traffic flow
direction.
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 17 ofFirewall Management Idle Timeout
Command Line Interface
Protect Management from the console port by setting an idle timeout. By default,
console and Telnet sessions time out after 10 minutes of inactivity. Recommend never to
set the timeout value to zero.
To verify execute the command:
get console
Web User Interface (WebUI)
The WebUI timeout, like the console timeout, defaults to 10 minutes. When changing the
WebUI timeout, specify a number of minutes (between 1 and 999) of idle time before
closing the browser. Enable the option “Enable Web Management Idle Timeout” check
box. Do not disable it.
Security Manager
Edit Device > Device Admin > Web Management
Permitted IP Addresses
Configure Juniper Networks devices to accept management requests only from trusted
sources. Define a list of permitted IP addresses. Permitted IP addresses include a mask
parameter specified as dotted-decimal value. Permitted IP addresses can be a hosts /
subnets. NOTE: You are limited to six entries.
CLI
set admin manager-ip address [mask]
WebUI
Configuration >Admin > Permitted IPs
Security Manager
Edit Device > Device Admin > Permitted IPs > Add
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 18 ofDaily Monitoring Tasks
• Three or more consecutive failed login attempts
• Syslog events with levels – critical, alert or emergency
• Unauthorized addition and deletion to user accounts and groups
• Changes / Unauthorized changes made
• Unauthorized access attempts
Weekly Monitoring Tasks
• Correct operation of syslog daemon
• All resource (CPU, memory) usage exceeding pre-defined thresholds (based on
capacity planning figures)
Monthly Monitoring Tasks
• Firewall patch levels
• Firewall reboots
• Disk space usage
• Account group membership changes
• Verification of backups
Bi Yearly Monitoring Tasks

Perform Physical audit
The Juniper Firewall administrators must perform these monitoring tasks. Notify any
discrepancy observed from normal operation to the appropriate department.
FIREWALL PROTECTION
Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP)
In order to provide protection against system failures, there has to be a tested and approved
DRP. This should include the backup policy and contingency arrangements.
The DRP for each Juniper Firewall must be ready at the time the firewall is in production
environment.
There must be a planned and bi-yearly Disaster Recovery Drill to ensure that the DRP is
maintained and updated.
Physical Security of Juniper Firewall installation
Physical security deals with all the security aspects of the installation premises of the actual
firewalls

Secure the physical location of the Juniper firewalls to guarantee operational continuity,
protection against natural and fabricated disasters, and prevent loss of Information
Assets.
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 19 of•
The Juniper firewalls must have uninterrupted and clean power supply, and operating
conditions as recommended by the hardware vendors.
Fault Tolerance
To ensure that failure of one firewall does not halt operations, each Juniper Firewall must use
NSRP / HA for redundancy.
Backup
Ensure that in case of data failure, manipulation or data loss; restore the system operations
to previous working state at the earliest.
• Backup the data on each firewall using the standard operations procedures, to ensure
that in case of failure, data recovery must conform to the SLA with the Business.
• Proper media labeling and protection should be implemented to ensure that media is not
accidentally or deliberately overwritten.
• Verify the backup regularly by doing random restoration checks.
• The storage and retention of the computer media must be as per the manufacturer’s
recommendations.
• On expiry, the media should be disposed securely, ensuring no data extraction is
possible
Separation of test and Production environment
The test and development environment is usually set up with loose security controls. In
order to avoid this, separate the Juniper Production firewalls from the test and development
setup.
Irrespective of the settings and controls applied on test and development firewalls, the
production firewalls must be hardened as per the Juniper Firewall security standards.
Do not create test user accounts on the Production firewalls.
There should be secure connection from test to Production firewalls.
Do not use data passing from production to the test environment without desensitizing it.
Change Management
The Juniper firewalls must also adhere to this CM policy. The system administrators must
ensure that every change goes through the appropriate CM process.
Service Level Agreements for Screen OS and hardware support
For continuity of operation, protect the firewalls from extended downtimes due to Screen OS
malfunctioning or hardware failure.
Each Juniper Firewall must have an SLA for Screen OS support (patches, troubleshooting etc)
from an authorized Juniper Firewall vendor. Ensure that the firewalls are also be supported
by an SLA with respective product vendors.
Protection of firewalls not kept in the Data Center
Not all Juniper firewalls are located at the Data Center. Many of them are deployed in remote
sites are housed in other locations with lesser protection – like the Lab \ Outstations. Hence,
the respective teams must ensure that such firewalls have adequate access control and
physical protection implemented.
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 20 ofDocumentation
The system administration and operations team must have complete documentation of the
Juniper Firewall setup. This must include (but not limited to):
• Installation procedure
• Security settings
• Operating procedures
• Firewall configurations for each firewall
• Details of users for each firewall, with access rights
• Disaster Recovery Procedures for each firewall
• Regularly update the documentation.
Physical and Environmental Security – Juniper Hardening Procedure
21
Page 21 of

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Shafiq Alibhai

http://shafiq.in

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